Napoleon would, of course, be the one who would fulfill the first consul's duties. [131], Meanwhile, the heavy Allied deployment against the French right flank weakened their center on the Pratzen Heights, which was viciously attacked by the IV Corps of Marshal Soult. Napoleon Bonaparte (August 15, 1769 to May 5, 1821), also known as Napoleon I, was a military general and the first emperor of France. Novelist Paul de Kock, who saw him in 1811 on the balcony of the Tuileries, called Napoleon "yellow, obese, and bloated". The increased importance of artillery after 1807 stemmed from his creation of a highly mobile artillery force, the growth in artillery numbers, and changes in artillery practices. "[260], During the Napoleonic Wars he was taken seriously by the British press as a dangerous tyrant, poised to invade. [172], The Russians avoided Napoleon's objective of a decisive engagement and instead retreated deeper into Russia. The treaty confirmed the Austrian loss of lands to France in Italy and Bavaria, and lands in Germany to Napoleon's German allies. Without a doubt, hands down: Napoleon: A Life by Andrew Roberts I cannot stress this enough. [91], Late in the afternoon, a full division under Desaix arrived on the field and reversed the tide of the battle. Napoleon Bonaparte (August 15, 1769–May 5, 1821), one of the greatest military commanders in history, was the twice-emperor of France whose military endeavors and sheer personality dominated Europe for a decade. He immediately went on the offensive, hoping to defeat the forces of Piedmont before their Austrian allies could intervene. [179] Heartened by France's loss in Russia, Prussia joined with Austria, Sweden, Russia, Great Britain, Spain, and Portugal in a new coalition. Bonaparte was promoted to Commander of the Interior and given command of the Army of Italy. "[257], A personal friend of Napoleon's said that when he first met him in Brienne-le-Château as a young man, Napoleon was only notable "for the dark color of his complexion, for his piercing and scrutinising glance, and for the style of his conversation"; he also said that Napoleon was personally a serious and somber man: "his conversation bore the appearance of ill-humor, and he was certainly not very amiable. Both sides inflicted about 23,000 casualties on each other. A brief attempt at resistance was made at Smolensk in August; the Russians were defeated in a series of battles, and Napoleon resumed his advance. He arrived at Donauwörth on the 17th to find the Grande Armée in a dangerous position, with its two wings separated by 120 km (75 mi) and joined together by a thin cordon of Bavarian troops. The constitution was approved in a rigged plebiscite held the following January, with 99.94 percent officially listed as voting "yes". British ships were blocking every port. This and other more minor attacks have led historians to debate whether he had epilepsy and, if so, to what extent. [57], Bonaparte could win battles by concealment of troop deployments and concentration of his forces on the "hinge" of an enemy's weakened front. [33], Napoleon and his commitment to the French Revolution thus came into conflict with Paoli, who had decided to sabotage the Corsican contribution to the Expédition de Sardaigne, by preventing a French assault on the Sardinian island of La Maddalena. Wiping out half of Prussian territories from the map, Napoleon created a new kingdom of 2,800 square kilometres (1,100 sq mi) called Westphalia and appointed his young brother Jérôme as its monarch. As Emperor, he appointed his brothers to Masonic offices under his jurisdiction: Louis was given the title of Deputy Grand Master in 1805; Jerome the title of Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Westphalia; Joseph was appointed Grand Master of the Grand Orient de France; and finally Lucien was a member of the Grand Orient of France. After five weeks, Napoleon and his army left. At least four genuine death masks of Napoleon are known to exist: one in, The body can tolerate large doses of arsenic if ingested regularly, and arsenic was a fashionable. Antoine-Henri Jomini explained Napoleon's methods in a widely used textbook that influenced all European and American armies. I die before my time, killed by the English oligarchy and its hired assassins.". The power of church courts and religious authority was sharply reduced and equality under the law was proclaimed for all men. He became the military leader in the French Revolution where he had to fight back the Austrian and Prussian forces. [204], While in exile, Napoleon wrote a book about Julius Caesar, one of his great heroes. The latter assured the envoy that the Vistula River represented the natural borders between French and Russian influence in Europe. "Memory and Political Imagination: The Legend of Napoleon Revisited", This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 19:33. [92] German strategist and field marshal Alfred von Schlieffen concluded that "Bonaparte did not annihilate his enemy but eliminated him and rendered him harmless" while "[attaining] the object of the campaign: the conquest of North Italy". He stated later in life:[when?] In the 1780s, Saint-Domingue had been France's wealthiest colony, producing more sugar than all the British West Indies colonies put together. Originally a royal chapel built between 1677 and 1706, the Invalides were turned into a military pantheon under Napoleon. "[305] McLynn states that, "He can be viewed as the man who set back European economic life for a generation by the dislocating impact of his wars. A failed coup was attempted while Napoleon led his charge against Russia, while the British began to advance through French territories. Napoleon's forces fought two Coalition armies, commanded by the British Duke of Wellington and the Prussian Prince Blücher, at the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815. [65] In February 1806, Ottoman Emperor Selim III recognised Napoleon as Emperor. Napoleon approached the regiment alone, dismounted his horse and, when he was within gunshot range, shouted to the soldiers, "Here I am. [169], By 1812, advisers to Alexander suggested the possibility of an invasion of the French Empire and the recapture of Poland. The development of the code was a fundamental change in the nature of the civil law legal system with its stress on clearly written and accessible law. Biographie : de Bonaparte à Napoléon Copier le lien. After clearing the last Spanish force guarding the capital at Somosierra, Napoleon entered Madrid on 4 December with 80,000 troops. [115] For the official coronation, he raised the Charlemagne crown over his own head in a symbolic gesture, but never placed it on top because he was already wearing the golden wreath. In their attempts to represent the emperor as a figure of national unity, proponents and detractors of the Third Republic used the legend as a vehicle for exploring anxieties about gender and fears about the processes of democratization that accompanied this new era of mass politics and culture. Adolf Hitler left nothing but destruction. [40], The French army carried out Bonaparte's plan in the Battle of Saorgio in April 1794, and then advanced to seize Ormea in the mountains. While Napoleon's mistresses had children by him, Joséphine did not produce an heir, possibly because of either the stresses of her imprisonment during the Reign of Terror or an abortion she may have had in her twenties. [295] Many historians have concluded that he had grandiose foreign policy ambitions. On 13 March, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared Napoleon an outlaw. On the advice of Talleyrand, Napoleon ordered the kidnapping of the Duke of Enghien, violating the sovereignty of Baden. [78] On 24 August 1799, he took advantage of the temporary departure of British ships from French coastal ports and set sail for France, despite the fact that he had received no explicit orders from Paris. Other victories soon followed, allowing Napoleon to greatly expand the French empire and paving the way for loyalists to his government to be installed in Holland, Italy, Naples, Sweden, Spain and Westphalia.